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causes and treatment What is rabies?Rabies, or 'hydrophobia', is known as a disease that makes dogs sick and mad.
Consequently, all dogs in many northern European countries are vaccinated against it. But it can affect all warm blooded creatures, including man, cats and bats. When an animal gets sick, it may start to bite. People are most often infected by the bite of a dog, bat or monkey. In Europe the virus is mainly carried by the fox. ADVERTISEMENT CONTINUE READING BELOW Rabies is rightly feared. By the time the symptoms appear, the disease can no longer be cured and almost always ends in death. Fortunately, rabies can be prevented with a vaccine and, if you've been bitten, there's every chance that you can be treated before the symptoms develop. What causes rabies?The virus that causes rabies is cheap oakleys sunglasses a lyssa virus. It's one of the few, in that particular group, that can cause illness in man. The rabies virus is good at 'hiding' from the immune system. As a result, no immune response really develops, so the body finds it hard to combat. After a bite, when the virus has travelled from the nerve pathways of the muscles into the central nervous system (CNS), it replicates quickly and spreads into many parts of the brain. The brain becomes inflamed and many functions of the CNS are affected. The virus spreads via the nervous system to many of the tissues of the body, including the skin, mucous membranes and salivary glands. How is rabies transmitted?Rabies is a classic 'zoonosis', which means that it's an illness that's passed directly from animal to animal and from animal to human. The effect on the brain sometimes causes aggressive behaviour ('furious rabies'), which can make the animal attack and bite without provocation. This is how the virus spreads from the animal's saliva to the tissue of the bitten animal or person. It then seems to make its way into the muscle cells. Some people suffer a slower disease known as oakley sunglass outlet 'paralytic rabies', with gradual muscle paralysis starting from the area of the bite or scratch. In theory, saliva on mucous membranes and small open cuts may also be the route of entry for the rabies virus. Some animals such as bats can also pass the disease on by scratching a person or other animals but transmission just from virus into; a oakly shades mucous membrane such as through the eye has been known. Rabies occurs in 150 countries of the world amongst the domestic and wild animal population. Bats are the main source of infection in countries where domestic animals are vaccinated and the fox population is tightly controlled. ADVERTISEMENT CONTINUE READING BELOW Where does rabies occur?Rabies is prevalent in all the continental regions of Asia, America and Africa. Greenland and many countries in Europe have rabies in their animal populations. The virus has reached as far as Southern Jutland in Denmark, although the rest of Scandinavia, as well as the British Isles, are rabies free. This is also true of Japan, Australia and New Zealand. Understandably, these countries are keen to maintain their rabies free status. As a result there are regulations on importing animals. From a global point of view, the WHO estimates that 15 million people a year are treated after exposure to rabies. An estimated 55,000 people are thought to die of the disease each year, many in India. Children are especially vulnerable to the oakley apparel sale bite and the rapid spread of the virus. What are the symptoms of the disease?Normally between one to three months can pass between infection and the onset of symptoms (incubation period). But in individual instances, it may be more than a year. In spite of being bitten by an animal with rabies, it's not certain that you have been infected.
Only one out of six people who have been bitten develop symptoms even if they have not been treated. If you get rabies and do not manage to be treated in time, the disease evolves in two phases. The prodomal phase (prelude)In this phase, the patient may have a fever, vomiting and loss of appetite, headache and pain at the site of the original bite.
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