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Child maltreatment A quarter of all adults report having been physically abused as children.
One in 5 women and 1 in 13 men report having been sexually abused as a child. Consequences of child maltreatment include impaired lifelong physical and mental health, and the social and occupational outcomes can ultimately slow a country's economic and social development. Preventing child maltreatment before it starts is possible and requires a multisectoral approach. Effective prevention programmes support parents and teach positive parenting skills. Ongoing care of children and families can reduce the risk of maltreatment reoccurring and can minimize its consequences. is a global problem with serious life long consequences. In spite of recent national surveys in several low and middle income countries, data from many countries are still lacking. is complex and difficult to study. Current estimates vary widely depending on the country and the method of research used. Estimates depend on: the definitions of child maltreatment used; the type of child maltreatment studied; the coverage and quality of official statistics; the coverage and quality of surveys that request self reports from victims, parents or caregivers. Nonetheless, international studies reveal that a quarter of all adults report having been physically abused as children and 1 in 5 women and 1 in 13 men report having been sexually abused as a child. Additionally, many children are subject to emotional abuse (sometimes referred to as psychological abuse) and to neglect. Every year, there are an estimated 41 000 homicide deaths in children under 15 years of age. This number underestimates the true extent of the problem, as a significant proportion of deaths due to child maltreatment are incorrectly attributed to falls, burns, drowning and other causes. In armed conflict and refugee settings, girls are particularly vulnerable oakley sunglass outlet to sexual violence, exploitation and abuse by combatants, security forces, members of their communities, aid white oakleys workers and others. A number of characteristics of relationships within families or among intimate partners, friends and peers may increase the risk of child maltreatment. These include: physical, developmental or mental health problems of a family member family breakdown or violence between other family members being isolated in the community or lacking a support network a breakdown of support in child rearing from the extended family. Community and societal factors A oakley glasses mens number of characteristics of communities and societies may increase the risk of child maltreatment. oakley red sunglasses These include: the easy availability of alcohol and drugs; inadequate policies and programmes to prevent child maltreatment, child pornography, child prostitution and child labour; social and cultural norms that promote or glorify violence towards others, support the use of corporal punishment, demand rigid gender roles, or diminish the status of the child in parent child relationships; social, economic, health and education policies that lead to poor living standards, or to socioeconomic inequality or instability.
Preventing child maltreatment requires a multisectoral approach. Effective programmes are those that support parents and teach positive parenting skills. These include: visits by nurses to parents and children in their homes to provide support, education, and information; parent education, usually delivered in groups, to improve child rearing skills, increase knowledge of child development, and encourage positive child management strategies; and.
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